TECHNICAL LIBRARY
Following section containes downloadable technical documents in PDF format. The documents are divided in sections depending on the relevant matters.

To download an paper click on the PDF icon.

Following sections are available:

FLOW ICE:
Following section containes technical papers about flow ice.

NAME: The fluid dynamics of ice slurry
AUTHERS: Andrej Kitanovskia, Didier Vuarnoza, Derrick Ata-Caesara, Peter W. Egolfa, Torben M. Hansenb, Christian Doetschc

DESCRIPTION: A review of research work of fluid dynamics of fine-crystalline ice slurry is presented. Different rheological models which are applied are presented. Numerous models for the friction factor, obtained by empirical and semi-empirical approximation, are discussed. An overview of existing pressure drop experiments is given and problematic issues of respective measurements and
experimental results are outlined. Because ice slurry is a two-phase fluid that is considered to be homogeneous, only in some cases work on stratified suspension flows is cited. Finally a variety of experimental results and some theoretical calculations of ice slurry flow patterns are shown.

NAME: Freezing point depression of various ice slurries
AUTHERS: J.W.Meewisse and C.A.Infante Ferreira
DESCRIPTION: Ideal solutions with equal molar concentration have an equal freezing point. The properties that determine heat and mass transfer processes encountered in a secondary cooling cycle are however determined by the mass fraction of solutes. Generally for aqueous solutions, the more freezing point depressant added, the less efficient heat and mass transfer properties. Therefore substances with low molecular weight are expected to result in more efficient ice slurries.
By calculating ice slurry properties, heat transfer and pressure drop, it was investigated if ice slurries of low molecular weight additives result in efficient ice slurries. For the substances considered, it was found that the molecular weight is a good indication for ice slurry efficiency, but is not decisive under all conditions. Ice slurries of three particular substances were found to have most promising properties: Sodium chloride, lithium chloride and potassium formate.
Substances like antifreeze proteins depress the freezing point of a solution actively by interfering in the ice crystal formation. These substances have been suggested for freezing point depression in ice slurries too, but can only be used to control ice crystal size or supercooling effects, and not to depress the freezing point because of the extra temperature difference introduced with thermal hysteresis.

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS :
Following section containes technical papers about calculation of heat transfer coefficients for refrigerant side of equipment used in refrigeration sysems.

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CO2 IN INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION :
Following section containes technical papers about calculation of heat transfer coefficients for refrigerant side of equipment used in refrigeration sysems.

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